Dual diagnosis and recovery by Rabia Zaidi

illiams explains different kinds of dual diagnosis in 2002:


  • Primary mental illness: consequences of the illness leads to drugs misuse.
  • Primary substance misconduct with psychiatric situations: lead to psychological symptoms, i.e; stress, depression
  • Common conditions: bio/psycho/social factors. i.e; family dysfunction and conduct disorder with drug use

Krausz (1996) categorizes four dual diagnosis:







  • The diagnosis of mental ailment, with a consequent dual diagnosis of substance misconduct that inauspicious effects on mental health.
  • Diagnosis of drug dependency with psychiatric difficulties leading towards to mental issues.
  • Co-occurrent identification of substance usage and psychiatric diseases.
  • Dual diagnosis of substance utilization and mood disturbance, both resulting a traumatic experience, for example: PTSD.

In the occurance of dual diagnosis, when someone has a direct contact with a mental and substance abuse problems side by side. This classification can range from someone have mild depression because of drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more intense when that person uses heroin during periods of mania. A person have experienced a mental health condition may turn into drugs and alcohol in a form of self-medication to change the troubling mental health symptoms. Research shows that alcohol and other life threatening drugs only make the symptoms of mental health conditions worse, the effects of drugs on a person’s moods, thinking, brain mechanisms and behavior.

Morel (1999) compare non-specific psychiatric disorders found among addicts from complications specifically connected with drug use. Disorders among drug utilizers include:

  • Anxiety disorders.
  • Sleep disorders, result of depression, anxiety disorder or psychosis.
  • Aggressive and violent behaviour, highlighted antisocial, psychopathic, schizophrenic or paranoid personality disorders.
  • Pharmaco-psychoses evoked by hallucinogenic drugs or amphetamines;
  • Chaos syndromes.